Sandra Waddock, Boston College, published “We Are All Stakeholders of Gaia: A Normative Perspective on Stakeholder Thinking” in the June 2011 issue of Organization & Environment.
This essay takes the normative perspective that we, including humans, institutions and enterprises, other living beings, and ecological systems, are all stakeholders of a core focal entity—the Earth conceived as the living system Gaia. The argument is that for the purposes of considering the long-term health and well-being of humanity, Gaia rightly should be conceived as the ultimate focal entity with a huge variety of other living beings, systems, and future generations, whose well-being is also at stake in the relationship. This perspective highlights the ways in which Gaia affects and is affected by her various stakeholders. It incorporates a rationale for such thinking that relies on recognizing the normative elements of stakeholder theory, particularly those that derive from interactions of stakeholders and planetary elements. It presents a framework of mutual influence and interdependence, with implications for the ways in which humanity needs to act with respect to Gaia.
In a recent podcast, Judith Clair, Boston College, interviewed Sandra Waddock about this article.
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