Sandra Waddock, Boston College, published “We Are All Stakeholders of Gaia: A Normative Perspective on Stakeholder Thinking” in the June 2011 issue of Organization & Environment.
This essay takes the normative perspective that we, including humans, institutions and enterprises, other living beings, and ecological systems, are all stakeholders of a core focal entity—the Earth conceived as the living system Gaia. The argument is that for the purposes of considering the long-term health and well-being of humanity, Gaia rightly should be conceived as the ultimate focal entity with a huge variety of other living beings, systems, and future generations, whose well-being is also at stake in the relationship. This perspective highlights the ways in which Gaia affects and is affected by her various stakeholders. It incorporates a rationale for such thinking that relies on recognizing the normative elements of stakeholder theory, particularly those that derive from interactions of stakeholders and planetary elements. It presents a framework of mutual influence and interdependence, with implications for the ways in which humanity needs to act with respect to Gaia.
In a recent podcast, Judith Clair, Boston College, interviewed Sandra Waddock about this article.
Check out the free SAGE podcast channel to view all of our podcasts!
Are you interested in receiving email alerts whenever a new article or issue becomes available? Then click here!